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Article Title: Iron Overload Reduces IL10, GMCSF and increases IL5 and TGF Levels in Nigerian Hypertensives


Hypertension is a leading cause of mortality and contributes to disease burden worldwide. The role of cytokines as inflammatory modulators and trace metals in systemic diseases is well documented. However, the interplay of trace elements with cytokines in hypertension has not been fully elucidated especially in this environment. This work investigated the interplay of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) with cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, IL13, IL17, IFN, TNF, GMCSF and TGF) in hypertension. Fourteen clinically diagnosed hypertensives (mean BP 139/88) attending the University College Hospital, ten non-hypertensives (mean BP 114/72) were also chosen as controls (age range: 40-60years). Blood lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe) and plasma Zinc (Zn) were determined in all subjects using atomic absorption spectrophotometry while ELISA technique was used to determine the levels of cytokines. Levels of toxic trace metals obtained in the normotensive and hypertensive subjects were within acceptable limits, however, level of Fe (mean 60.2μg/dl), (CI-42.4-78.0) and Zn (mean 7.6μg/dl), (CI-5.9-9.4) obtained in hypertensive subjects were significantly higher than in normotensive subjects [(mean 49.8μg/dl) and (4.9μg/dl)] for Fe and Zn respectively (P<0.05). Proliferation of proinflammatory cytokines was not statistically different in both control and hypertensive subjects except for IL5 and TGF which were raised (p<0.05) while IL10 and GMCSF were reduced, (P<0.05, respectively) in hypertensive relative to normotensive subjects. The interplay of the observed iron overload with the cytokines and the possible pathological implication of this in the development and progression of hypertension are discussed in this work.